Jaringan Ahli Perubahan Iklim dan Kehutanan Indonesia
Padang, Saturday 10 February 2018
SEA do not become an Environmental Impact Analysis of Development Policy
APIKI Network. Indonesia’s current pattern of development is not yet sustainable, provinces with higher GRDP have lower environmental quality. Economic development is still become the commander of national development, and environmental conditions are still under-scrutiny. This was conveyed by Mahawan Karuniasa, General Chairman of Indonesia Climate and Forestry Expert (APIKI Network) and Lecturer of Environmental Sciences University of Indonesia, in National Seminar and Bioexo 2018 at State University of Padang (UNP), Saturday, February 10, 2018. National Seminar implemented to carry the Systems Thinking paradigm in encouraging the conservation of biodiversity and local wisdom from an educational perspective. System thinking means comprehensive or holistic, cross-sector, long-term, and dynamic. This way of thinking is important for dealing with complex issues, such as biodiversity, climate change, and sustainable development.
The long journey of development process using economic development as its main mechanism has resulted in various global social and environmental problems. Finally in the 1960s, Rachel Carson’s famous book, titled the Silent Spring, which was followed in 1972 by the United Nations (UN) Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, and Brundtland Report in 1987 brought a new concept of development, which is sustainable development which balances economic, social and environmental aspects, both for current and future generations. Then the issue of sustainable development continues to grow, followed by the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio Janeiro or UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), and finally the agenda of the SDGs towards global sustainable development of 2030.
Indang Dewata, Lecturer of State University of Padang who is also Coordinator of Environmental Studies Program throughout Indonesia, on the same occasion stated that a necessity to preserve biodiversity, as one of the pillars of global sustainability. On the other hand, at present biodiversity, like other environmental issues is still not in the mainstream of development. Closing his presentation, Mahawan Karuniasa who is also the representative of Indonesia and Asia Pacific at the United Nations Framework for Climate Change (UNFCCC) stated, in addition to supporting the growing number of people, Indonesia still needs to catch up with the economic development of neighboring countries, and to develop into developed countries . Indonesia still lags behind Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia in terms of exports, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is also ranked fifth after Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Thailand
Therefore, according to Mahawan Karuniasa, to realize sustainable development in Indonesia takes 3 things principle. First, the paradigm shift from partial/sectoral to static and momentary interest to holistic and dynamic Systems Thinking paradigm, for stakeholders, especially government decision makers. So that sectoral and short-term perspective is soon abandoned. Various environmental damage and economic disruption due to degradation of natural resources and environmental services that occur today become the momentum to make changes of paradigm.
Secondly, it is necessary to build awareness and operational actions of stakeholders, including the government, that Law No. 32 Year 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management is in the context of sustainable development to achieve sustainable Indonesia. The policy of environmental protection and management as well as its derivative policies, is still regarded by various parties as an environmental instrument in the narrow sense. It still leaves a naive situation of economic and environmental challenges, which should be extinct.
Third, in the face of global issues, such as climate change and SDGs, need to be constructed in accordance with economic, social and environmental conditions in Indonesia, not vice versa. Greenhouse gas mitigation efforts in the energy sector, for example, must at the same time be able to meet energy needs, such as increased electrification. Reducing emissions from the agricultural sector, at the same time, must also maintain or improve food security. Efforts to achieve conditions without poverty, while preserving the environment at the same time.
The above three principles will have positive implications for sustainable development efforts. The Strategic Environmetal Assessment which is the main instrument for sustainable development, is not reduced to Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL) from the Spatial Plan (RTRW), the Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMD), as well as other policies, plans and programs. SEA is also not only for the protection and management of environmental aspects, but also to build a balanced economic, social and environmental system, which means realizing sustainable development.